Gaskets - encyclopedically explained
Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually formed like a ring and used for sealing of flange joints. In general, gaskets should not be reused. Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials, and features. The following are the type of gaskets commonly used:
Non-Metallic Gaskets (ASME B 16.21)
Spiral-Wound Gaskets (ASME B 16.20)
Ring Joint Gaskets (ASME B 16.20)
Non-Metallic Gaskets are used with flat face or raised face flanges. Spiral-Wound Gaskets are used with raised face flanges. They are available with an inner ring and outer ring, which is also known as the cantering ring. Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges. They are available in octagonal or oval cross sections.
A very high surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a flange. This leads to plastic deformation of the gasket. Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e. bringing two metal surfaces of different hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape and finish.
Plumbing - from Wikipedia
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade. In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation.
Plumbing performed during school construction
Large companies engaged in hydraulic performance of full-service plumbing. They can be rented during the construction of the house. They also participate in the process of putting up apartment buildings and schools of all sizes. It seems that the least complicated plumbing services are performed in the course of construction of the house, because they are limited to the performance of domestic water supply and sewage, and in the case of apartment blocks need to make a detailed plan of such a network adequate to the number and position of the individual apartments. However, in the case of schools you need to equip the bathroom in the right amount of sinks, where you will be able to wash their hands after using the toilet. In schools, sports can also stand up showers.